QResearch Project Summaries

Approved Research Programs and Projects

Evaluation of the NHS Health Checks in England 2013-2017

Adults in England are entitled to a free NHS Health Check to find out whether they are at risk of heart disease, stroke, diabetes, kidney disease, or dementia, and they are offered support to reduce the chance of developing these conditions. Everyone ...

Antidepressant Decision Aid Tools and Risk Assessment

Depression is very common affecting up to 11% of the population. One of the treatments for depression is antidepressant medication. There are many different types of antidepressants and most of them are effective. Some antidepressants have more adver ...

Prostate specific antigen (PSA) testing in the UK population and its implications

Screening tests can be used to find cancers at an early stage before symptoms appear. For prostate cancer, a blood test called PSA can be used. A good screening test should find prostate cancers earlier, before they have spread to other parts of the ...

Antidepressants study in adults less than 65 years

Antidepressants are one of the most commonly prescribed medications worldwide, and their use is increasing. There is some evidence that certain illnesses and harmful events could be caused by antidepressants, so the study was carried out to see wheth ...

Risk of thrombosis in women prescribed Hormone Replacement Therapy

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is used to relieve adverse symptoms and reduce risk of chronic conditions in women going through menopause. There are different therapy types, which depend on the symptoms experienced by an individual.  Some women re ...

Anticholinergic drugs and the risk of dementia: a nested case control study.

Dementia is a common condition in older people, with serious consequences for affected individuals and their families and carers. Several factors can increase the risk of developing dementia such as older age, obesity, smoking, alcohol and having oth ...

Validating a postpartum venous thromboembolism risk prediction model using QResearch

Having a blood clot develop in a vein, known as a venous thromboembolism (VTE), can happen more often in young women after giving birth. Although it is rare, it is very serious and is a leading cause of maternal deaths in high-income countries, so pr ...

Establishing the validity of a case-finding tool to identify patients with familial hypercholesterolaemia

Familial Hypercholesterolaemia (FH) is a common inherited cause of raised cholesterol, affecting up to 320,000 people in the UK. However, over 80% of people with the condition are still not identified, leading to many avoidable heart attacks and earl ...

Comparison of Co-morbidity and Investigations For People with Diabetes in Bermuda and the UK.

Our objectives were to: Compare the prevalence of six major morbidities in the general population in Bermuda with the UK. This included diabetes, coronary heart disease, stroke, hypertension, heart failure and kidney failure. Characterise the pop ...

​Combined oral contraceptives and risk of venous thromboembolism: nested case-control studies using the QResearch and the CPRD databases

Combined oral contraceptives (commonly known as “the pill”) are used by millions of women around the world to prevent pregnancy. As with all medicines, they have side-effects many of which are mild. However one side effect can be an increased risk of ...

Unintended effects of novel oral anticoagulants (NOAC) vs warfarin in real world settings vs warfarin

Anticoagulants (also known as ‘blood thinning’ agents) are used to treat blood clots & also to help prevent people with irregular heartbeats from having a stroke. A stroke can be very serious as it can lead to loss of use of arms or legs, for example ...

NHS Health Checks Study 2009-2013

In England the NHS Health Check started in 2009 and is the first programme internationally aiming to improve cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors in an entire national adult population through behaviour change and treatment informed by CVD risk ...

Diabetes treatments and risk of cancer: a series of nested case-control studies

Type 2 diabetes is a condition which is becoming more common as the population ages and obesity levels increase. Diabetes can lead to heart disease, kidney disease and also an increased risk of some cancers. It is not known whether the increased risk ...

Cardiovascular and neuropsychatric risks of varenicline

Varenicline is a drug that can help smokers quit. However, there are concerns about possible serious adverse events in users of this drug. The aim of the current study was to assess whether varenicline is related to such events, both in the general s ...

Antiepileptic drugs and metastasis

Cancers often spread to distant sites in the body to form secondary tumours. This process is called metastasis. In order to metastasise, cancer cells need to invade through surrounding tissue. Metastasis is rarely curable. If we could slow the spread ...

QFracture - risk of osteoporotic fracture

QFracture is a risk prediction algorithm which calculates an individual’s risk of osteoporotic fracture taking account of their individual risk factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, clinical values and diagnoses. Osteoporotic fracture is identified ac ...

QDiabetes Risk Assessment Tool

QDiabetes is a risk prediction algorithm which calculates an individual’s risk of type 2 diabetes taking account of their individual risk factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, clinical values and diagnoses. Type 2 diabetes is identified according to c ...

QKidney - predicting the risk of chronic kidney disease

QKidney is a risk prediction algorithm which calculates an individual’s risk of moderate or severe kidney disease taking account of their individual risk factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, clinical values and diagnoses. Moderate or severe kidney di ...

QStroke - risk of ischaemic stroke

QStroke is a risk prediction algorithm which calculates an individual’s risk of ischaemic stroke taking account of their individual risk factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, clinical values and diagnoses. Ischaemic stroke is identified according to c ...

QThrombosis - risk of thrombosis

QThrombosis is a risk prediction algorithm which calculates an individual’s risk of thrombosis taking account of their individual risk factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, clinical values and diagnoses. Ischaemic stroke is identified according to cli ...

QAdmissions, QFrailty and QMortality

QAdmissions is a risk prediction algorithm which calculates an individual’s risk of emergency admission taking account of their individual risk factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, clinical values and diagnoses. Ischaemic stroke is identified accordi ...

QStatin - risk of unintended effects from statin medication

QStatin is a risk prediction algorithm which calculates an individual’s risk of cataract, myopathy, acute renal failure and liver dysfunction taking account of their individual risk factors such as age, sex, ethnicity, clinical values and diagnoses. ...

QCancer Risk Assessment Tools

QCancer is an evolving family of risk prediction algorithm which calculates (a) an individual’s risk of having a current cancer and (b) risk of developing cancer in the next 10 years and (c) survival for patients with a diagnosis of cancer. E ...

QDiabetes​ - Risk of diabetes related complications

This project includes two aspects: 1.   To quantify the risk of each complication associated with different diabetes treatments. There are many different treatments for patients with diabetes. Clinical trials have generally shown that these treatm ...

Predicting survival outcomes for patients with a new diagnosis of cancer

Outcomes for patients with cancer in the UK tend to be worse than those for similar developed countries worldwide. The reason for this isn’t fully understood but may reflect delays in diagnosis and variations in uptake of cancer treatments. Improving ...

Validation of QPrediction scores in QResearch and CPRD

The QResearch database and the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) databases are two large general practice databases which are used for research. The CPRD was set up in 1988 and is of similar nature and size to QResearch although it is derive ...

QRISK3 - a new cardiovascular risk score

To develop and validate updated prediction algorithms to estimate the 10 year risk of cardiovascular disease in women and men accounting for new and established cardiovascular risk factors which can continue to be continually updated. ...

QBleed - risk of bleeding

To develop and validate risk algorithms (QBleed) for estimating the absolute risk of upper gastrointestinal and intracranial bleed for patients with and without anticoagulation aged 21-99 years in primary care. QBleed is updated regularly to ensur ...

Antipsychotic use in children and adolescents

Antipsychotic medications can be prescribed to children and young people with certain mental health issues. Some of them are serious, such as schizophrenia. Others include aggression and disruptive behaviour, intellectual disability and autism, and ...

Improving Early Recognition of Motor Neurone Disease

The aim of this study is to identify and quantify patterns of ‘red flag’ symptoms associated with a diagnosis of Motor Neurone Disease (MND). The research will inform the evidence base for the subsequent development of tools in GP systems to improve ...

ADEPTS: Accelerated Diagnosis in neuroEndocrine and Pancreatic TumourS

Pancreatic cancer is the 11th most common cancer in the UK. Diagnoses are often made late when the cancer is advanced. Less than 20% of patients are suitable for surgery and 84% of patients are likely to have died within a year of diagnosis giving ...

Epidemiology of Sepsis in adults in Primary Care: an exploratory study using QResearch

Blood poisoning or septicaemia is a serious infection with a high mortality. Spotting this illness early improves the outlook for patients. Most research has been done on patients once they arrive in hospital but it is important to help GPs recognis ...

Choosing the right antidepressant for depressive disorder

Depression is a very common major health problem, 350 million people in the world are affected. The costs for major depression are largely due to significant problems in treatment. There are several effective treatments for depression including drug ...

Dietary or weight loss advice for hypertension in diabetes in primary care

The aim of this study was to find out the proportion of people with high blood pressure or diabetes who were receiving diet or weight loss advice from their doctor. We also wanted to investigate whether certain factors, such as age, weight, gender, s ...

Use of hormone replacement therapy and survival from cancer

The aim of the study is to determine the association between HRT use after cancer diagnosis and cancer-specific mortality in patients with common female cancers, excluding breast cancer. Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) is widely used. HRT is prov ...

Hormone replacement therapy and dementia risk: nested case-control studies using QResearch and CPRD

Dementia is a devastating condition with serious consequences for affected individuals, families, carers and wider society. It is commonest in older people, affecting 1 in 14 over the age of 65. In the UK, there are currently about 850,000 people l ...

QResearch-ICNARC Coronavirus Record Linkage Project

The majority of UK residents will likely have been infected with the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2, the virus that causes Covid-19) by the end of the current pandemic. Large numbers of people will receive hospital treatm ...

COVID-19, smoking and respiratory conditions: a prospective QResearch-Case Mix Programme study

We aim to assess whether smoking reduces the risk of severe COVID-19 and whether the risk of severe COVID-19 is also reduced in people who use nicotine in the form of electronic cigarettes or nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), but do not currently s ...

Characteristics of Chronic Hepatitis B associated with Cirrhosis and Cancer

Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major contributor to morbidity and mortality worldwide, with an estimated 300 million people infected with HBV globally. Chronic infection, through its progression to cirrhosis and/or primary liver cancer, repre ...

Development and evaluation of a tool for predicting risk of short-term adverse outcomes due to COVID-19 in the general UK population

Introduction The first UK cases of the novel coronavirus infection that causes COVID-19 were confirmed on 24th January 2020 and the first UK death on 28th Feb 2020. Since then the virus has spread rapidly. There are currently no vaccines or treatm ...

Examining the effects of obesity on the severity of COVID-19 symptoms

Infection with the coronavirus, called SARS-CoV-2, does not affect everyone equally, with some prone to get more severe illness, called COVID-19, than others. Studies so far have shown that being overweight is associated with more severe disease, but ...

Antipsychotic prescribing and health monitoring in young people

Antipsychotic medications can be prescribed to any child or adolescent with particular mental health issues. These include severe conditions, such as schizophrenia, as well a range of behavioural disorders, learning difficulties, autism and tics. P ...

Quantifying the association between COVID-19, ethnicity and mortality: A cohort study across three UK national databases

There are concerns with mounting evidence that people from ethnic minority groups are disproportionately affected by COVID-19 and are more likely to have severe disease, leading to hospitalisation and death. Given the large variation of outcomes obse ...

The Impact of Miscarriage on Mental Health Outcomes

The overall aim of this study is to measure the impact of miscarriage on mental health outcomes in women between 16 and 50 years old. ...

Diabetes as a risk pathway towards early diagnosis and prognostication of pancreatic cancer

In this study, we will evaluate: (1) association between type-2 diabetes and related illnesses with pancreatic cancer, (2) quantify referrals for pancreatic cancer scans amongst patients diagnosed with type-2 diabetes in primary care in line w ...

The impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the diagnosis of childhood, teenage and young adult cancers

In the United Kingdom (UK), the commonest cause of death in children, teenage and young adults (TYA) is cancer. Diagnostic delays are known to play a role. By increasing delays, the COVID-19 pandemic may worryingly contribute to worsening morbidity a ...

A second wave of crisis in the NHS after the COVID-19 pandemic

The COVID-19 pandemic could affect the population in several dimensions. The virus will have direct effects on people who catch it, but also indirect effects on the rest of the population due to the disruption it is causing to life and access to heal ...

Maternal depression and anxiety disorders and child mental health outcomes

Problems relating to Maternal Depression and Anxiety Disorders (MDAD) are common and are known to affect child health and development. In the UK, the cost of these problems has been estimated at £8.1 billion for each birth cohort of children, and 72 ...

CoMPuTE: Complex Multimorbidity Phenotypes, Trends, and Endpoints

Multimorbidity (having multiple diseases at one time) is a growing problem in health and social care. Both research and actual recent events have shown that those suffering from multimorbidity have greater health and care needs and worse health ou ...

Development and validation of statistical learning models to predict breast cancer diagnosis and breast cancer mortality in the general population: a cohort study

Breast cancer is the most common cancer affecting women. In the UK each year, 55,000 women are diagnosed with it, and over 11,000 women die from it. Breast cancer screening uses mammograms (a form of X-ray) to try and detect breast cancers at an earl ...

DELTA - integrated Diagnostic solution for early detection of Oesophageal cAncer

Oesophageal cancer is the sixth most common cause for cancer related deaths worldwide. Compared to the rest of the European countries, UK has some of the worst outcomes mainly due to late diagnosis. The main risk factor for oesophageal cancer is ch ...

Uptake and comparative safety of new COVID-19 vaccines by age, sex, region, ethnicity, comorbidities, medication, deprivation, risk level and evidence of prior COVID infection

COVID-19 has affected millions of people around the world and has had major consequences for peoples’ health, work and lives. This made it important to quickly develop vaccines to help protect people against COVID-19. Several vaccines have been app ...

Epidemiology and outcomes of COVID-19 in patients with chronic liver disease and cirrhosis

In light of the resurgence of COVID-19 in many parts of the world it is crucial to understand the individual risks posed by the virus to different patient groups. This project aims to use information from GP health records to understand how COVID-19 ...